Category Archives: Finnish

Apple II clones: “BOSS-1″ – Multi-System Personal Computer” – Part II:



The original power supply let the magic smoke out of itself and is been repaired by a fellow hobbyist. Meanwhile i took a power supply from the Apple //e clone that came built inside a IBM 5150 XT styled case as the pinouts were the same.


I also got the original BOSS-1 ROM-card from Juha Seppänen of a while ago. I dumped the ROM contents and they are now in Asimov archives if somebody needs them.


I inspteced visually the chips on board, pressed them down, cleaned some and swapped some as they had rusty legs on them. Luckily i have few clone boards that are great for donating parts now..



There was some broken trace close to Slot 7, but it was reapaired earlier on. So i didn’t touch it.



The BOSS-1 manual says to my understanding, that you can boot the BOSS-1 two ways:

-ROM-card installed to system slot that is the slot 0
-ROM-chip installed to location U6 that contains the “OS” (Applesoft) that should start an boot menu when unit is booted.

M.S.P.C. VAR 4.1
2) Z-80 CP/M

So it’s basicly a boot-menu, after choosing what you want to use, you insert the floppy and press 1 or 2.

-First i tried with just the ROM at U6, but nothing, buzzing sound and garbage on screen.
-Then WITH the ROM-card, with the same results.
-Last just the ROM-card installed and the unit booted fine to text on screen “BOSS ][“.

When i got this unit in the first place, it came with the ROM-chip at U6, no Z80 CPU but a cloned Apple ROM-card with 6 x Applesoft ROM chips and it naturally booted “APPLE ][” on screen before the power supply releated the magic smoke (it wasn’t just the typical RIFA’s). But really it doesn’t matter, i’ll keep the original ROM-card in Slot 0 as it’s not a big deal.


As i had some loose clone boards i removed one Z80 processor and installed it in BOSS-1 and CP/M 56k booted without a problem.





All ROM and RAM were OK. Colors are very vibrant when using JVC PVM 9″ CRT and not so much with a modern LCD. The colors when using modern LCD are hossibly ghostly, black & white.


The board is 60Hz NTSC. It’s pretty clear that your luck with Plus era Apple II’s and LCD’s is really depend of the model and maker of the display. I’ve not been able to get my Apple II PLUS units output colors with just swap of the crystal. 

Tested few cards to see how this clone would work as the ROM-card might cause issues etc.




As the ROM-card needs to be used, there’s no ROM in main logic board, RAM cards do not work well. I tried with the original ROM card and Saturn Reboot 128k card as well original 32k RAM card but it didn’t work at all.


Only with David Mutimer’s MultiROM card and Saturn Reboot 128k i was able to get 16k RAM card functionality, by installing the 128k card in Slot 0, and the MultiROM card in Slot 1 (Applesoft).

80-column card:
I had boxed clone 80-column card so i installed that. The monitor i used (9″ CRT) is quite small so it was difficult to read the text, but it did work. 


Booti (ProDOS HDD-emulator)
Slot #6, booted Total Replay hdd-image succesfully and played some games. 


Accelerator II (clone) 65c02@4MHz
3.58MHz, Slot 0 = MultiROM (Applesoft), Slot 1 = Accelerator II (clone), Slot 6 = Disk II interface + wDrive.

Game Controller DIP16:
There’s regular, standard DIP16 game controller connector on board where you can install the paddles or joystick.



FinApple 2020 (c)
Apple II Forever.



Bebek Electronic catalog 1-3/1984


I found these Bebek Electronics catalogs from online auction site for few euro’s so i naturally just had to get them. I saw there were few ad’s about BOSS-1 clone that i have, so i was super excited to obtain any additional information about the model and it’s history. There’s so little information of anykind of this model.


Brief Bebek Electronics history:

“Bebek Electronic began operations in Lahti in the mid-1970s, when Resit Bebek, who first moved from Turkey to study in Germany and came to Finland after graduating as an electronics engineer with his Finnish wife, did not find a job elsewhere”.

– Then I had to try it myself.

“From Lahti, operations gradually expanded to Helsinki, Tampere and Kuopio. In addition to the four locations, supplies are  currently sold in the company’s own online store”.

Some interesting ad’s from those catalogs:







Hitachi 3″ compact floppy disk drive. These were sold in here in Finland in few places. I have one as well. The 3″ format itself wasn’t really popular, it was used in Amstrad computers in UK. It works as any floppy drive with Apple II, regular Disk II interface card will do. It’s dual sized.

cards_for_boss_mack64 cards_for_boss_mack_apple

Some cards they sold for Apple II and clones (MACK-48, BOSS-1). I assume those cards were also clones from Taiwan/HK.
I’d like to find that 6809-card long with the FLEX-OS they bundled it with. There were 6809 card made in Germany by IBS as well.


These cards look clones as well to me.

boss_1_ad_3 boss_1_ad_4



Different pricing for companies. They also sold AMDEK monitors.


They carried also Teac half-height floppy drives.



BOSS-1 information + link to my blog:

Link to full resolution scans at

About Resit Bebek (In Finnish)


I am very interested finding more about the BOSS-1/BOSS-1C computer so please contact me if you have anything about BOSS-1/1c.

Also interested if somebody have more of these Bebek Electronic catalogs from 1980’s.

FinApple 2020 (c)
Apple II Forever.

Aapi Juntura – interview:

I thought of interviewing a long-term Apple II user, Aapi Juntura, to my blog and to collect his thoughts and memories of early Finnish Apple II history and his career with Computers, hardware and Information Technology.

I sent few questions to Aapi by email. This is rough English translation from the original Finnish interview. 


Who are you and where you come from?

Aapi Juntura: Siina Maria Keskinarkaus gave birth to me in April 1943. My father Otto Jalmari was a small farmer. A total of 11 children were born into the family, of wich seven are still alive. I am the middle one.

I attended elementary school in Peurajärvi in 1950-1956, secondary school in Ranua in 1956-60.

google maps

I got into TVH (Road and Civil Engineering Authority) as a trainee in summer of 1960 and after that i took map drawing course. In the spring of 1961 i took engineering job at district of Kemijärvi where a giant company Marion dug a new riverbed in the Kemijoki river. Served in the Finnish Army in the Oulu Artillery Regiment 1962-1963. I was a rookie from Ranua, who protested against the superiors.. According to the military passport i’m a sergeant.

I applied for Oulu University of Technology in 1960, and i got to choose wether to start in 1961 or 1964. So I rented a room in downtown from a elderly person. He heated the oven and kept the washing water in the enamel containers. In addition, he often talked about nice things about human life. In the dances of the workers house 1965 I met a postwoman who worked with IBM punchcards and got even paid for doing so. I didn’t want to live together because she was moody and only 18 years old.

Reindeers in Lapland

I graduated as a civil engineer in 1968. I went in the summer of 1968 to Sodankylä to work as a foreman on a forest road road construction site. Engineer Esko Valtanen from the district asked me to apply for a job in the engineering district and there i designed bridges, forest roads, drains etc. I handled the checkups of water passages in Lapland. Mikko Puronlahti advised to become a vocational school teacher for techical/map-drawing. In Lapland, vocational school students were in 1960s and 1990s the most eager to learn in my opinion. The work as of a teacher was very rewarding, the teacher learns the most. A couple of times they asked me to apply for a principal’s post but that would have ment less summer vacation time and the daily race for resources and have pecking order i didn’t care much of.


What was your first touch to computers and when?

VTT (technical research centre of finland) had purchased computers of the size of a closet and there Pekka Malinen taught us FORTRAN-programming at TEKU (University of Technology) in the spring evenings. The first print of the program that was run, we got “SYNTAX ERROR”. It was just colon being incorrect.. A third run produced a table with a line printer moments at different points in the beam. At that time, there were electronic calculators with the tube screen and they were able to calculate trigonometric calculations as well. The real big change happened in 1972, the HP35 calculator made spreadsheets unnecessary. It’s reverse Polish logic RPN was handy in my work for at least a decade. Popular Elektonics-magazine i found through a family friend, Hannu Ylioja. There were ads for devices and components and wiring diagrams.

HP-35 calculator

Vocational school had electrical and radio engineers and i was also interested what they studied. The first radio I built in 1974. That’s where my Electronics hobby began. In 1977 there were rumors of memory circuits and microprocessors. So the school acquired a microcomputer building kit in 1978.

Apple II setup for drawing and printing

The first Apple II came to Lapland central vocational school in 1980 by a new teacher of telephone dept. Four programmable SHARP-calculators were networked in it.

At school, Markku Siivola (a psychiatrist from Muurola) held Apple evening courses about Word Processing and Spreadsheets, Magic Windows and VisiCalc. Then it became clear in seconds that typing had taken a giant leap. No scratching or correcting but proofreading and editing on screen before printing. Cost estimates and lists were redone due to minor changes. All you need to do is make changes to the spreadsheet and at the same time the total amount is done. Maybe a 90% improvement compared to the mechanical calculators.

Watanabe digi-plotter, map of land division drawn (1982).

In addition, with Apple II’s graphics tablet most maps could be digitized and then edited in many ways, the scratch pen and knife became obsolete. The Watanabe Digi-Plotter was able to print A3-size illustrations. The print scale and details could be selected or added. Lots of development opportunities at once!

I was a map drawing teacher and immediately made a purchase proposal for Apple ][ despite the fact that back in 1972 the acquisition of an electronic calculator (HP35) the Principal found it unnecessary. I remembered this in my purchase proposal presentation, total cost: 40,000 FIM. The normal annual purchase limit was 2000 FIM. To my surprise, there was no quarrel and a year later, in 1981, we reached the digital age with the students. 

The jobs for the following years had been selected. I programmed just about everything about map and document production on a computer, if a good program didn’t exists. There were thousands and thousands of BASIC program lines. 

As a tool for teaching and learning, the Apple II turned out to be a great tool for about five years, the limits came against the limitations of speed, display and memory at the end naturally.

Graphics charts were used as a basic tool for digitization for surveying training in mapping. In this case, the map on paper became adaptable and versionable for different uses. Although the accuracy of digitization was not good, it was a good fit for teaching assignments. In addition to the lines were needed map characters, text size and gradient variation, color rendering was needed. Areas were created when the pattern was digitized to be closed.

Splitting the map into sub-drawings came at the same time, so it could print separately, borders, roads, buildings, fields, plots, landmarks, etc … I needed to control the printers one by one, for example the HP-GL had to be learned. The mapping software expanded to PC’s, including terrain measurement and related computing. The whole project i was able to sell to other schools for 5000 FIM from wich the taxation took 60% off …

When you obtained your first computer and what was it?


Ohio-scientific was in used before the first Apple ][. Ohio Scientific’s motherboard ad was on the back cover of Popular Elekronics Magazine. It could be ordered from the US and paid with a VISA card. So I immediately got a credit card and an import license from the License Office, which was then needed for foreign trade. I remember the device arrived in a few months in 1980. The price was less than a thousand marks.

In addition to the boot rom, the motherboard had a BASIC interpreter. Similar to Apple without line drawing capablity. The only block graphics was the ASCII extension 128 … 255. The display has 24 rows and 24 columns. There was 8 kilobytes of static RAM-memory but the expansion seemed troublesome to get done.

The tape recorder was 150 baud for the Kansas City code, which almost could be read in the contents of the download code on screen. It took about 8 minutes to fully load the memory.

There were games from around the world, Aarvark from Canada had done a couple of cassettes of shooting games. Within a couple of year i had about a dozen of casettes

It could be used to learn the basics of programming just like any other system of its time. The children were also interested in it. Neighbors (religious) denied visits by their own children when they heard about the computer.

As a monitor i used a 14 “mobile TV which i modified with capasitor after the video selection circuit. The school’s TV-dept teacher Eero Niemelä told me how to do the modification and not get killed by electricity. TV-deflection requires a voltage of 25 kV.

Ohio Scientific had to switch to an EPROM-monitor program. It allowed you slightly editing the editable line.

Self built Apple II clone.

Due limited memory and display in Ohio Scientific, a better system had to be purchased. It was Apple II that was available as components and with floppy drive from Germany. Paying for an order in advance by check annoyed me greatly. Risky business so to speak.

Self built Apple II with Silentype printer.

The pictures above shows the first Apple II clone built by myself from components on a circuit board. The cases were self-made with using the school’s edge machine and a cutter (damper cost 10mk/m2). Joystick has two potentiometers joined (i wrote article how to buld it at Omenahyve magazine). There is a film of both sides of the circuit board in my storage. I still could make the circuit board.

I ordered the components from Germany in 1980-81. I waited a couple of months. The guy sent a paper picture of the device and was going to ship as soon as he got all the parts (about 150pcs). The import license had to be obtained from the licensing agency. In Germany i had to pay “Vorkasse Schek” in advance 4000FIM (back then Apple II cost about 10.000FIM). When the delivery was delayed and customs numbers had to be given to customs i felt anxious. The announcement i saw in German-language magazine MC (Micro Computer).

Later, my wife’s sister’s husband was working in England at the time. He bought a used Apple II and sent it to Finland. I bought Finlux TV and a MiniTel-text terminal as a scrap in Kajaani to be used with it.


In this picture (from 1983) shows a used Apple II i purchased from England (it had unstable power supply). Also the 12″ green monitor came from England. The thermal printer printed on 5″ paper, but paper availability was poor. Print accuracy was moderate (the cord was twisted around the axis as on old radios).


Pictured here is my work horse, Apple II 64KB RAM, PAL, Color TV, MV Monitor with 80 characters / line custom sync, joystick (self-made), thermal printer (silentype), 2 * floppy 143 kB Sheet metal enclosures made from 1mm sheet metal by my self.


I built the last Apple II around 1985-86 for nephews as a gaming machine. I also made the power supply myself.


Apple II, why Apple II? What was best on it?

Apple II was selected by needs and features it fullfilled:

  * Line drawings or graphics are required.

  * Expansion, 7 slots

  * Easily expandable memory.

  * Sounds and games.

  * Applesoft was well documented and easily usable.

  * Support, that is, the network of user’s existed.

  * Clones and motherboards readily available and ROM-copying easy.

  * Peripherals available: printers, plotters, graphics tablets, PAL and RGB-color cards, etc..

  * A wealth of articles in German, English, Italian …

  * Large variety of good usefull software: VisiCalc, DB master, Word Processing.

  * Lots of pirated software available.. and copy protections easily defeted.

  * Lots of enthuastic users!

I actually borrowed the school machine for the weekend and came with the boys to the conclusion that we had to get it, it had colors and audio!


Was it difficult to get programs or hardware from Finland at the time?

A few programs were purchased with VISA from USA, for example: DB master, Spredsheet, Magic Window, Copy II Plus. There are not many original packages left. Mainly programs were exchanged with acquaintances. Cracked programs were bought from Singapore, for example.

Popular games included : Karateka, Boulder Dash, Choplifter, Chess, Space Invader, Spider, Sammy Lightfoot, The Spy Strikes back, One on One, Minit Man, The Quest, IFR Flight Simulator, Starblazer, Ultima IV..


What did you do with your Apple II?

Maps, databases, programming, gaming .. hardware building.

I was on vacation in Italy in 1981 and it was raining so I went around bookstores and found Applesoft the book had a whole bunch of interesting program examples. Magazines had examples of voices programming and drawing a plot map. Fine coincidence and generous rain. 


You have also lectured about information technology? 

In southern Finland I went to give few presentations around 1983-85 about Apple II and computer-aided design and digitalization. Some listener was amazed about where i came from. Some people were amazed that somebody from Lapland arrived and acted like expert on such matters..

Few years ago, when I bought an old mowing machine, i met a man who said that he was my course back then and had stated to his wife that “it was a futile course”. Now he had changed his thoughts about it and found that their children do everything with their computers from morning to night.

YLE (National Radio/TV) reporter made a story about me on the radio. Later, a TV-program for School-TV was shot at school for a couple of days. The program was aired a couple of times during prime time. MTV (Commercal TV station) also filmed a news clip about house design.

On YLE-TV program

The YLE archive contains 1985 new school tools: (only watchable in Finland, geoblocked)

There is a video on the use of information technology at the Central Vocational School of Lapland. Our part starts at about 12 min

You have made and published programs for Apple II, would you tell more about them?


Because Apple II had better drawing and graphics features, in one Saturday morning a element-housebuilder/salesman (private constructor) arrived to my doorstop and wanted a piece of computer equipment and a program to do everyday routines for him. At the same time, it would be a good selling point in advertisements that it was “computer desgined”. We ate, bathed, and played around with the computer equipment, went to the sauna and the house salesman took the train back home.

I looked at the elements of the house suppliers. They were 30cm wide, then, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 cm. The base images of such are simple and 1/10 size would fit the entire floor plan. First you had to make the elements by manufacturing and then using them (selection, transfer, turning). Texts and dimensions had to inserted. Saving the image as a bitmap and element database was required also. I added more features to the database, such as price. Surprisingly from the ground plan pages and ends and cost estimates were also added and created. I didn’t get the process taught for the element-housebuilder, that he would have sold houses with. Result was, plain zero.

I offered the program to a software bank and set the price at 20,000FIM, same as one Apple II’s price at the time. I was surprised when they paid and so they got their first CAD software (Computer Aided Design).

You also wrote articles to “Omenahyve”-user’s magazine?


The articles in “Omenahyve” were published in 1982-1988 and contained, among other things, the following topics:

-Automatic Drawing (Apple Graphics Tablet, Watanabe digi-plottter)
-Purchasing Ananas (Taiwanese Apple II+ clone)
-Apple for Musical Instrument (La Mela Musicale)
-Joystick building
-Making graphical patterns
-New power supply to Apple II
-Book reviews
-TV as monitor
-Building a EPROM programming card
-Micro-Computer assisted House Design
-Terminal for Monitor
-Copy Programs (CopyII+, EDD, Locksmith etc) and protections.
-Game port expansion

Most “Omenahyve” magazine issues are scanned to pdf: 

Just the file size is unreasonably large, sorry about that.

I also wrote a couple of pages of “Light Pen” magazine about a house design program.

Article how to build your own joystick/Omenahyve.


You are also published author of Computer books?


“Mikrotietokone työkaluksi” / Microcomputer as a tool (National Board of Vocational Education, National Printing Center) 1984/1991 editions. 

The Board of Vocational Education asked the school to make a textbook for group work and learning. Others refused but i collected a couple of hundred pages and asked for a opinion from the principal..  but all the material i delivered got lost by him! Maybe it wasn’t good enough, so i did an another draft, and i no longer offered it to others to review.

I wrote, photographed and rasterized the material, text printed through printer adapter of disc typewriter. I glued the rasterized pictures to the openings and my son’s line art clips as well. I sent an A5-size booklet to the subscribers. I remember that the proof-reader was the real pain in the ***. The cover image had been transformed looking like crazy person! What a butcher!

So i did the book a second time. That’s where thousands of copies were sold and taken to print an another edition. I think I got an hour’s pay for this job just like the school cleaners. Jealous double. But i did heard a couple of praises as well. A relative of mine was at the University of Oulu and he was amazed that my book was used as the basis for the lecture. I went to Jyväskylä for a course and there were 20 pages of my book copied for me to study from!


What happened after the Apple II?


I searched the drawers for pictures and found some. It explains why Apple II was left aside in the end. It was better than the IBM-PC but worse than the Olivetti M21. Variability was imitated by many manufacturers. From xerox sheet metal i made PC-V30 (8086 Clone, 10MHz), with floppy drives, old power supply from HP. It had display card text 80/24 and resolution 640*240 (as far as i can remember) and the TV was used as monitor. I ordered a few 14″ monitors from Germany without a case, also for school. I made tin covers myself.  They still work, in 2019. Apple’s Macintosh wasn’t practical at school with a lack of variety of peripherals needed. So it was app IBM-PC compatibles after that.


FinApple 2019 (c)
Apple II Forever.

Aapi Juntura – haastattelu:

Ajattelin haastatella pitkän linjan Apple II-käyttäjää, Aapi Junturaa blogiini ja kerätä talteen hänen ajauksiaan ja muistoja varhaisesta Suomen Apple II-historiasta.  Lähetin kysymyksä Aapille sähköpostitse..


Kuka olet ja mistä tulet?

Aapi Juntura : Siina Maria os. Keskinarkaus teki minut huhtikuussa 1943. Isäni Otto Jalmari oli pienviljelijä. Lapsia syntyi perheeseen kaikkiaan 11, perillisiä elää seitsemän. Minä olen keskimmäinen. Kansakoulua kävin Peurajärvellä 1950-1956, keskikoulua Ranualla 1956-60. Pääsin TVH:lle harjoittelijaksi v.1960 kesäksi, sitten suoritin kartanpiirustuskurssin. Keväällä 1961 menin insinööripiirin hommiin Kemijärvelle. Silloin Jättimäinen Marion kaivoi Kemijoelle uutta uomaa. Armeijan suoritin Oulussa tykistörykmentissä 1962-1963. Olin alokas Ranualta, joka osoitti mieltä ylivääpelille. Sotilaspassin mukaan olen kersantti, kauhia tappaja?

Oulun teknilliseen opistoon hain jo 1960, sain valita aloituksen 1961 tai 1964. Niinpä vuokrasin Heikinkadulta huoneen vanhukselta. Hän lämmitti pönttöuunin ja piti emaliastioissa pesuveden. Lisäksi hän puheli monesti mukavia ihmiselämästä. Työväentalon tansseissa 1965 tapasin postineidin, joka puuhaili IBM:n reikäkorteilla ja sai siitä palkkaakin. Yhteisasumiseen en halunnut, koska neiti oli oikukas ja vain 18v.

Sain tien- ja vesirakennuksen insinöörin pätevyyden 1968. Menin kesällä Sodankylään pomoksi metsätien tierakennustyömaalle. Insinööri-piirista Esko Valtanen pyysi lokakuussa töihin insinööripiiriin ja siellä suunnittelin siltoja, metsäteitä, ojituksia yms. Pidin myös vesilain mukaisia toimituksia Lapissa. Mikko Puronlahti kehoitti siirtymään ammattikoulun opettajaksi kartanpiirtäjille niinpä sitten vaihdoin alaa. Lapissa Ammattikoululaiset olivat 1960-1990 ikäluokkansa opinhaluisinta joukkoa. Opettajan työ oli antoisaa, opettaja oppii eniten. Pari kertaa kehoitettiin hakemaan rehorin virkaa mutta kesälomat olisivat romahtaneeet ja jokapäiväinen kisailu resursseista sekä nokkimisjärjestyksestä ei kiinnostanut.

Mikä oli ensikosketuksesi tietokoneisiin ja milloin?

VTT:kin oli hankkinut komeron kokoisia tietokoneita ja sieltä Pekka Malinen opetti meille kevätiltoina FORTRAN-ohjelmointia TEKU:lla. Ensimmäinen tuloste jatkuvan palkin momentiksi oli SYNTAX ERROR. Oli kaksoispiste väärin.. Kolmas yritys tuotti rivikirjoittimella taulukon momenteista palkin eri kohdissa. Silloin oli esillä elekronisia laskimia putkinäytöllä ja niillä pystyi laskemaan trigonometrisiakin laskuja. Varsinainen suuri muutos tapahtui vuonna 1972, HP35-laskin teki taulukkokirjat tarpeettomiksi. Sen käänteinen Puolalainen logiikka RPN oli kätevä omassa työssäni ainakin vuosikymmenen. Popular Elektonics-lehteen tutustuin perhetuttavan (Hannu Ylioja) kautta. Siinä oli mainoksia laitteista ja komponentista sekä kytkentäkaavioita. Ammattikoulussa oli sähkö- ja radioinsinöörejä ja kiinnostuin heidänkin puuhista. Ensimmäisen radion rakensin vuonna 1974. Siitä alkoi elekroniikan askartelu. Vuonna 1977 kuului huhuja muistipiireistä ja mikroprosessoreista. Koululle hankittiin mikrotietokoneen rakennussarja 1978.

Apple ][ tuli Lapin keskusammattikoululle 1980 uuden puhelinpuolen opettajan mukana. Siihen oli verkotettu neljä ohjelmoitavaa SHARP-laskinta.  Koululla Markku Siivola (Muurolan psykiatri) piti Apple iltakurssin tekstinkäsittelystä ja taulukkolaskennasta, siis Magic Windows ja Visicalc. Silloin selvisi sekunnissa, että konekirjoitus on ottanut loikan. Ei raaputeta, eikä korjailla vaan oikoluetaan ja muokataan ruudulla ennen tulostusta. Kustannusarviot ja luettelot tehtiin uusiksi pienenki muutoksen takia. Taulukkolaskennassa vain tehdään muutokset ja loppusumma yms on samalla valmis. Ehkä 90% parannus veivikoneisiin.



Lisäksi Apple ][:n graphics-tabletilla voitiin valtaosa kartoista muuttaa digitaalisiksi ja näitä sitten korjailla monin tavoin, raapekynä ja-veitsi kävivät vanhanaikaisiksi. Watanaben piirturilla pystyi tulostamaan A3-kokoisia piirroksia. Tulostusmittakaava ja yksityiskohdat voitiin valita tai lisätä. Paljon tuli kehittämismahdollisuuksia kertaheitolla!

Olin kartanpiirtäjien opettajana ja tein samantien hankintaesityksen Apple ][:sta siitä huolimatta, että v. 1972 elekronilaskimen (HP35) hankintaa rehtori piti tarpeettomana. Muistin tämän hankintaesityksessä, 40.000mk. Normaali vuosihankinta oli 2000mk. Ihmeekseni asiasta ei kinasteltu ja vuoden päästä päästiin opilaiden kanssa digi-aikaan, siis 1981. Seuraavien vuosien puhdetyöt oli valittu. Ohjelmoin jokseenkin kaiken kartta- ja asiakirjatuotannon tietokoneella tehtäväksi, ellei ollut valmista hyvää ohjelmaa olemassa. BASIC-rivejä tuli tuhansia.

Työkaluna ja opetus/opiskeluvälineenä Apple ][ osoittautui mainioksi vekottimeksi noin viiden vuoden ajan, rajat tulivat vastaan nopeuden, näytön ja muistin rajallisuudesta.

Maanmittausalan koulutukseen  kartanvalmistuksessa oli grafiikkataulu soveltui digitoinnin perustyökaluksi.  Tällöin paperilla oleva kartta tuli muunneltavaksi ja versioitavaksi eri käyttötarkoituksiin.

Vaikka digitoinnin tarkkuus ei ollut hyvä sopi se mainiosti opetusen harjoitustöihin. Viivojen lisäksi tarvittiin karttamerkit, tekstit koko ja kaltevuus muuntelulla, väritki tarvittiin. Pinta-alat syntyi kun kuvio digitoitiin suljetuksi.

Kartan jakaminen osapiirroksiksi tuli samalla, niipä saattoi tulostaa erikseen, rajat, tiet, rakennukset, pellot, tontit, rajamerkit jne… Tulostimien ohjaukseenki tarvittiin yhtä sun toista, esim. HP-GL piti opetella.

Karttaohjelmisto laajeni PC-koneisiin käsittäen myös maastomittauksen ja siihen liittyvät laskennan. Koko projektin sain myytyä muihin alan kouluihin 5000mk hintaan, josta verottaja otti 60%…


Milloin hankit ensimmäisen oman tietokoneesi ja millainen se oli?


Ohio-scientific oli käytössä ennen ensimmäistä Apple ][:sta. Ohio Scientific:n emolevyn mainos oli Popular Elekronics-lehden takakannessa. Sen pystyi tilaamaan USA:sta ja maksu tapahtui VISA-kortilla. Niinpä hankin heti luottokortin ja Lisenssivirastosta tuontiluvan joka silloin tarvitiin ulkomaan kauppaan. Muistaakseni laite tuli muutamassa kuukaudessa vuonna 1980. Hinta oli alle tuhat markkaa.

Emolevyllä oli bootirommin lisäksi BASIC-tulkki. Samanlainen kuin Applessa ilman viivan piirtämistä. Vain blokkigrafiikka oli ASCII-koodin jatkella 128…255. Näytössä on 24 riviä ja 24 saraketta. Muistia on 8 kilotavua staattista RAM:ia mutta laajennus vaikutti hankalalta.

Kasettinauhuri oli Kansas City-koodin 150 baudia, eli melkein kerkis lukemaan näytöltä latauksen sisällön. Muistin lataaminen täyteen kesti n.8 minuuttia.

Pelejäkin sai maailmalta, Aarvark Canadasta oli tehny pari kasetillista räiskintää. Parin vuoden aikana kertyi kymmenkunta C-kasettia.

Ohjelmoinnin perusteita sillä saattoi opetella kuten muillakin sen aikaisilla vehkeillä. Lapsetkin oli siitä kiinnostuneita. Naapurit (lestadiolaisia) kielsivät omien lastensa vierailut kun kuulivat tietokoneesta.

Näyttönä käytin 14″ matkatelevisiota johon laitoin konkalla videoliitännän videoilmaisimen jälkeen. Koulun TV-puolen opettaja Eero Niemelä kertoi mihin ja miten liitos pitää laittaa, jotta ei tule sähköiskuja. TV:n poikkeutus vaatii 25 kV jännitteen.

Ohio Scientifigissä oli vaihettava EPROM monitor-ohjelmalle. Sillä pysty hiukan editoimaan muokattavaa riviä.



Muisti ja näyttö rajoittivat käyttöä, joten parempi vehje piti hankkia. Se oli sitten Apple ][ komponentteina ja levykeasemalla tilattavissa Saksasta. Tilauksen maksu etukäteen shekillä ärsytti.

Ylähäällä kuvassa ensimmäinen piirilevylle komponenteista tinattu kokoamani Apple ][-klooni. Kotelot ovat omatekoa koulun kanttikoneella ja leikkurilla (pelti maksoi 10mk/m2). Joystick on kaksi potentiometria yhdessä (juttu Omenahyve-lehdessä). Piirilevyn  molemmista puolista on hyllyssä filmi. Voipi tehdä piirilevyn vieläkin.

Komponentit tilasin Saksasta 1980-81, odottelin pari kuukautta ja piti kiirehtiä. Kaveri lähetti laitteesta “kymmpikuvan” ja aikoi toimittaa kunhan saa kaikki osat (n.150kpl) kasaan. Lisenssivirastolta piti hankkia tuontilupa. Saksaan piti maksaa “Vorkasse Schek” etukäteen 4000mk (Apple ][ maksoi silloin n.10000mk). Meinasi jännittää kun toimitus viipyi ja tulliin piti antaa tullausnumerot. Ilmoituksen näin saksan-kielisestä MC-lehdestä (Micro Computer).

Vaimon siskon mies oli silloin töissä Englannissa. Hän osti käytetyn Apple ][:n ja  lähetti sen Suomeen, minä lähetin rahat. Kajaanista ostin romuna Finlux:n ja MiniTell-tekstipäätteen.


Kuvassa (1983) on Englannista ostettu käytetty Apple ][. Myös 12″ vihermonitori tuli Englannista. Silentype- lämpötulostin tulosti 5″ -paperille, paperin saatavuus oli heikkoa kuitenkin. Tulostustarkkuus kohtalainen (naru kiertyi akselin ympäri kuten vanhoissa radioissa). 


Kuvassa perustyökalu, Apple ][ 64Kt PAL , Väri-TV, MV-monitori 80-merkkiä/rivi oma synkronia, joystick (omatekemä), lämpötulostin (Silentype), 2*floppy 143 kt. Peltikotelot 1mm peltiä.


Viimeisen Apple II:n tein 1985-86 veljenpojille pelikoneeksi. Siihen tein myös virtalähteen itse.


Apple II, miksi juuri Apple II? Mikä siinä oli parempaa kuin muissa merkeissä?

Apple ][ valikoitui tarpeiden ja ominaisuuksien mukaan:
* Viivapiirrokset eli grafiikka pakollinen.
* Muunneltavuus, liitäntäväyliä 7 kpl
* Muistin helppo laajennettavuus.
* Äänet ja pelit.
* Applesoft dokumentoitu ja käyttökelpoinen.
* Valmiiksi muutama tukihenkilö, eli verkosto olemassa.
* Klooneja ja emolevyjä hyvin saatavilla ja ROM-kopiointi helppoa.
* Oheislaitteita saatavilla: kirjoitin, piirturi, grafiikka-tablet, PAL ja RGB värit.
* Lehdissä runsaasti artikkeleita saksaksi, englanniksi, italiaksi…
* Valmisohjelmia: VisiCalc, DB-master, teksinkäsittely ohjelmia.
* Piraattiohjelmien tarjonta maailman laajuista.. Kopiosuojaukset kierrettävissä helposti.
* Muutenki syntyi hyvä meininki!

Lainasin koulun konetta viikonlopuksi ja tultiin poikien kanssa siihen tulkseen, että tämmönen pitäs hankkia, siinä oli värikuva ja äänet.


Oliko Apple II ohjelmia tai laitteita vaikea saada Suomesta?

Muutama ohjelma ostettiin VISA:lla USA:sta, esim. DB-master, Spredsheet,  Magic Window, Copy II Plus. Alkuperäispakkauksia ei ole enää montakaan jäljellä. Pääasiassa ohjelmia vaihdettiin tuttujen kanssa.. ja valmiiksi kräkättyjä ohjelmia ostettiin esim. Singaporesta.

Suosittuja pelejä olivat esim: Karateka, BoulderDash, Choplifter, Shakki, Invader, Spider, Sammy Lightfoot The Spy Strikes back, One on One, Minit Man, The Quest, IFR Flight simulator, Starblazer, Ultima IV..


Mitä kaikkea teit Apple II:llasi?

Karttoja, tietokantoja, ohjelmointia, pelien pelaamista..

Olin Italiassa lomalla vuonna 1981 ja vettä satoi, niinpä kiertelin kirjakaupoissa ja löysin Applesoft kirjan josssa oli kokojoukko kiinnostavia ohjelmaesimerkkejä. Aikakausilehdissä oli esimerkkejä äänien ohjelmoinnista ja tonttikartan piirtämisestä. Hieno sattuma ja antelias sade. 


Olet myös luennoinnut tietotekniikasta?

Etelä-Suomessa kävin pitämässä muutamia esityksiä 1983-85 Apple ][:sta ja tietokoneavusteisesta suunnittelusta sekä digitalisaatiosta. Jotku kuulijat hämmästyi asiasta ja jotkut kotipaikastani. Jotkut piti häpeällisenä, että Lapista tulee ukko puhumaa muka asiantuntijana..

Toissakesänä ostaessani vanhan niittokoneen tapasin miehen, joka sano olleensa minun kurssilla ja todenneen silloin vaimollekin, että “olipa turha kurssi”. Nyt oli perunu kantansa ja totesi lastensakin värkkäävän niitä juttuja tietokoneilla aamusta iltaan.

YLE:n toimittaja teki minusta jutun radioon. Myöhemmin tehtiin Koulu-TV:n ohjelmaa koululla pari päivää. Ohjelma esitettiin pari kertaa parhaaseen katseluaikaan. MTV kävi myös kuvaamassa uutispätkän talonsuunnittelusta.



Ylen arkistossa on 1985 koulujen uusien työvälineet:

Siinä on video Lapin keskusammattikoulun tietotekniikan käytöstä. Meidän osuus alkaa n.12 min kohdalta.


Olet tehnyt ja julkaisuut ohjelmia Apple II:lle, kertoisitko niistä?



Koska Applessa oli piirrosominaisuudet, ilmeistyi eräänä lauantaiaamuna elementtitalokauppias ja halusi laitteen ja ohjelman, joka tekisi osan hänen töistään tai arkirutiineista. Samalla se olis myyntivaltti, tietokoneella tehty. Syötiin, saunottiin ja pällisteltiin laitteita, käytiin saunassa ja talokauppias lähti junalla takasin.

Katselin talotoimittajien elementtejä. Niiden leveys oli 30cm kerrannainen, siis, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 ja 180 cm. Sellaisten pohjakuvat ovat simppelit ja 1/10 kokoisina näyttöön sopisi koko pohjakuva. Ensin piti tehdä elementtien valmistus ja sitten niiden käyttö (valinta, siirto, kääntö). Tekstit ja mitat piti sijoittaa. Kuvan tallennus bittikarttana ja elemettien tietokantana tarvittiin myös. Tietokantaan lisäilin vielä ominaisuuksia, esim. hinta. Yllättäin pohjakuvasta syntyi myös sivut ja päädyt sekä kustannusarvio. Talotoimittajalle en saanut puuhaa opetettua niin, että hän olisi sillä taloja myynyt. Tulos nolla.

Tarjosin ohjelmaa ohjelmistopankille ja laitoin hinnaksi esim. 20 000 mk, siis yhden Apple ][:n hinnan. Yllätyin kun he maksoivat ja saivat ensimmäisen CAD-ohejlman käyttöön (Computer Aided Design).


Kirjoitit myös Applekäyttäjien “Omenahyve”-lehteen, miten ja milloin aloitit ja mitä artikkelisi koskivat?


Artikkelit Omenahyve-lehdessä ilmestyivät vuosina 1982-1988 ja ne koskivat mm. seuraavia aiheita:

-Automaattinen Piirtäminen (Apple Graphics Tablet, Watanabe-piirturi)
-Ananaksen Osto (Taiwanilainen Apple II+ klooni)
-Apple Soittimeksi (La Mela Musicale)
-Joystickin teko
-Kuvioiden teko
-Varavirtalähde Appleen
-Televisiosta monitori
-EPROM ohjelmointikortin tekeminen
-Mikrotietoavusteinen pientalosuunnittelu
-Pääte monitoriksi
-Kopiointi ohjelmat
-Peliportin laajennus


Omenahyve lehdet löytyvät skannattuna pdf:ksi : (joskaan tiedostojen koko on SUURI).

Kirjoitin myös “Valokynä”-lehteen parin sivun jutun talonsuunnittelu-ohjelmasta.

Olet kirjoittanut myös tietotekniikka-kirjoja?


mm. “Mikrotietokone tutuksi” (Ammattikasvatushallitus, Valtion Painatuskeskus) Ammattikasvatushallitus tarjosi koululle ryhmätyöksi oppikirjan tekemistä. Muut kieltäytyivät, keräsin aineistoa pari sataa sivua ja pyysin lausuntoa silloiselta rehtorilta ja koko aineisto hävisi sen siliän tien. Ehkäpä se ei ollut hyvä, joten tein toisen luonnoksen enkä antanut sitä enää muille.

Kirjoittelin ja kuvasin sekä rasteroin aineiston. Tulostin sovittimen läpin kiekkokirjoituskonelle tekstit. Liimasin rasteroimani kuvat varattuihin aukkoihin ja pojan viivapiirroskuviakin liitin mausteeksi. Lähetin A5-koisen kirjasen tilaajalle. Oikolukija  oli varsinainen pilkun nussija. Kansikuvakin oli muutettu mielisairaan näköiseksi naiseksi..

Joten tein kirjan toiseen kertaan. Sitähän myytiin tuhansia kappaleita ja otettiin toinenki painos. Taisin saada tästä työstä tuntipalkaa saman mitä koulun siivoojat. Kateellisia kaksinverroin. Pari kehuakin kuulin. Joku sukulainen oli Oulun Yliopistolla hämmästyny, että Aapin kirjaa käytetään luennon pohjaksi. Jyväskylään menin kurssille ja siellä oli kirjastani kopioitu 20 sivua minulle opiskeltavaa.


Mitä Apple ][ jälkeen?


Etsin laatikosta kuvia ja löysinkin. Siitä selviää miksi Apple][ jäi sivuraiteelle. Se oli parempi kuin IBM-PC mutta huonompi kuin Olivetti M21. Muunneltavuutta matkivat monet valmistajat. Kopiokoneen pelleistä tein PC–V30 (8086-klooni, 10Mhz), korppu ja lerppu-asemat, HP:n vanha virtalähde. Näyttokortin teksti 80/24 ja tarkkuus 640*240 (muistaakseni) ja TV toimi näyttönä. Muutaman 14″-monitorin tilasin Saksasta ilman koteloa, myös koululle. Peltikuoret tein itse. Toimivat vieläkin, vuonna 2019.

Applen Macintosh ei ollut käytännöllinen kouluissa joissa oli monenmoisia oheislaitteita ja käyttötarpeita.


FinApple 2019 (c)
Apple II Forever.

Yet an another Apple //e “early” PAL:


This Apple //e “early” (PAL) model i happened to find during my summer vacation. There was one old MicroComputer shop that had closed up and they were emptying their warehouse from excess material. The owner was also a PC collector so there were lots of mainly, PC stuff around. But after seing few pictures i thought that there were “early” //e model and Apple Monitor /// (the later with beige front panel) so arranged the time and drove there. It was about 400km round trip but i had the time.

Luckily i had agreed beforehand to buy this set (without seeing it actually any closer) as when i got there, there were other people interested in Apple II’s  as well (!). There were two quite dusty and yellow //e’s that they grabbed before me. Anyway, it turned out to be an another of those “early” 1983 models with different case (Jerry Manock designed). Those are not so common over here so naturally iwas happy to add one to my hoard… collection.


All chips socketed (thank god).

Board date: 1883 (also have : “8333” hand written)  
Board code: 820-0073-A 1982 (c)
Board model: B-607-0664
Board manuf: R8316
Case serial : A2S064P : 2A2S2-138295
Serial Label : 825-0472-A / 220V, 50Hz, ~0.5A
Case date stamped inside : 6. MAI 1983 (Friday, Week 18, 1983)

case_serial_stampe_s6. MAI 1983

Chips :


-Keyboard ROM 341-0152 (Rev.A Apple 82) 
-Video ROM *label missing* should be 341-0162 REV.B 
-EF ROM 342-0134-A 
-CD ROM 342-0135-B 
-CPU R65C02P3 II450-I3 8439 
Interesting! The other “early” unit i have it also have the same CPU R65C02P3 II45-I3 from the same week! 8439 (!) 

-As the ROM’s are not enhanced, i’ll swap the CPU to regular 6502 when i find one.

-Power supply: Astec AA11040C (230V, 50Hz. 0.5A)


Very basic cards. Nothing excting.

-Disk II interface card
-Apple 64k/80col card (607-0103)


Cleaned the system thoroughly, good place to dry things up is naturally the Sauna! The keycaps were cleaned in a soap liquid for a day and then brushed with toothbrush.

At sauna.. no heat on.


As the power supply is old and i really don’t want to blow it up right now, i tested this unit with known good recapped AE Heavy Duty PSU.

Booted fine with AE psu. The color picture was bit shaky. The video connector would need some cleaning.

Used the “Apple //e diagnostic card” -to check if the unit had any obious issues.

Keyboard: worked otherwise but “H” -keyswitch seems to be broken. Will be replaced.

Diagnostic was 100% otherwise.

Glad to have an another of these early ones added up to my collection.

FinApple 2019 (c)
Apple //e Forever.


From Plus to Europlus:

Yet an another Apple ][ Europlus rescued… i couldn’t help myself even i really don’t “need” any more of these. I don’t even usually use pre Apple //e models that often.. But we all hobbyists know how it is, don’t we?

Production details:

  • APPLE II – MAY 1977 > MAY 1979 – A2S1 – BLACK & WHITE label from 0001
  • EUROMOD – ???  1978 > AUG 1980 – A2S2 – BLACK & WHITE label from 500.000
  • PLUS – JUNE 1979 > DEC 1982 – A2S2 – GREEN & WHITE label from 0001
  • EUROPLUS – AUG  1979 > EARLY 1983 –  IA2S2 – GREEN & WHITE label from 600.000

Production/assembly started in Cork, Ireland, in mid 1980.


Apple II europlus:

Case serial : A2S2-29471

This seems to be originally Plus-model and upgraded to Europlus to be used in Europe before the Europlus was introduced. The Cork, Ireland, factory indeed started operating in Mid 1980 so this predates that. The actual Cork made europlus would have IA2S2-prefix and serials starting from 600000.


Main logic board serial : 8005


Main logic board Revision 4 (with 16K memory blocks)


Slot 7 have the sticker glued on “This slot only for euro color PAL/SECAM card. Do not use any other card”


ROM chips (from late 1978 to late 1979).

ROM model/date/code:
ROM F8 = 7943 341-0020-00
ROM F0 = 7919 341-0015-00
ROM E8 = 7906 341-0014-00
ROM E0 = 7903 341-0013-00
ROM D8 = 7907 341-0012-00
ROM D0 = 7851 341-0011-00 


Other materials:

-Disk II inferface card (clone)
-Epson printer card with cable 
-1/2 height 5.25″ floppy drive (Model: GYE 55-A)
-The Applesoft Tutorial (book) 1979
-Apple II reference manual (book) 1979
-Basic Programming reference manual (book) 1979
-Pair of Paddles (16-pin)


FinApple 2019 (c)
Apple II Europlus Forever.

Otto Romanowski: Apple II

Otto Romanowski is one of the electronic music pioneers in Finland who have had great and remarkable career. He’s considered as electronic music pioneer among Erkki Kurenniemi and Henrik Otto Ronner. He is electronic music composer and professor in Sibelius Academy.

I contacted him few years ago and asked if he had any Apple II material left or if he could borrow some disks to be imaged and preserved. At the time all his Apple II material was in storage but he’d be accessing them later. It took quite a bit of time but now he contacted me as he was in process of moving and had found these:

Apple II europlus

Board date: 0283 | F8252, Board code: 606-X-648-X

Serial: IA2S2-693030 (Made in Ireland) 825-0187-00

-Power supply : Astec AA11040C (230 VAC 50Hz 0.5A)

-Disk II – floppy drive (2 pcs) : One drive had drilled hole on it so you could adjust the drive speed without removing the case. Looks like bullet hole.

Apple /// monitor : In quite good condition and clean. Few light scratches.

Apple paddle controllers : Pair of the old black 16-pin models, one adjusment ring missing.

Mountain Computer Sound System-cards with lightpen

Saturn 32k RAM-card

California Computer Systems CCS Apple II Asynchronous Serial Card 7710

-Disk II – interface card
-Epson printer – card 

5.25″ diskettes : Some programming and music releated software.
These are now imaged to .woz (.a2r) and .dsk and available at : and asimov archives.

This particular Apple II europlus was originally used with in opening exibition of Finnish Science Center, “Heureka” in Vantaa back in 1989. It was used to let the visitors to create music and graphics with the Mountain Computer Sound system, paddles and lightpen.

An another Mountain Computer Sound System with Alpha Syntauri-setup can be seen on video used by Otto here:

It seems to be early Apple //e model. This setup might have belonged to Espoon Musiikki Opisto (Espoo Music Institute) as Otto remembered the Alpha Syntauri was theirs. I contacted the Institute but sadly, the Alpha Syntauri was long gone. Otto was teacher at the Espoo Music Institute for Music Theory, Solfége and Electronic Music in 1979-1990.


Alpha Syntauri setup:

I will interview Otto later this year and release it here at FinApple.

An another piece of Finnish Apple II history saved up!

Alpha Syntauri:

Otto Romanowski:


FinApple 2019 (c)
Apple II Forever.

Kasettilamerit: rescuing Turku GameLab Apple II disk collection:


Turku Gamelab borrowed about 80 pcs of Apple II 5.25″ floppies to be preserved. Some of the disks were original, some typical “backup” material that went from hand-to-hand among the hobbyists back in 80’s. Most likely most of the material is preserved already, but.. who knows. Just in case.

The floppies were read with Applesauce device and saved as .a2r and then converted to .woz, the format that is more useable. Most emulators read .woz files thesedays as well some hardware devices to be used the the real Apple II hardware.

Some images had personal information so they were excluded from the collection.

Most intresting find was those few graphical rolling on-screen demos made for Finnish electronics retailer “Mustapörssi”. There were demos for “Access //” and “AppleWorks”programs. Mustapörssi sold Apple II’s in mid to late 90’s, atleast //c and IIe.


Access //:

The collection is downloadable at:

The .woz files can be loaded with emulators like: OpenEmulator (macOS), Virtual II (macOS), MAME, microM8, EPPLEII.

Or with card readers for real Apple II’s like: wDrive or Floppyemu.


Finapple 2019 (c)
Apple II Forever


My Nordic Apple ///


One thing i’ve wanted to find for ages, but with such a little luck so far, was Apple /// that would have the localized keyboard (Swedish/Finnish) but those have been oddly difficult to find. Apple ///’s were not by far popular (business) computers in Nordics area and most ///’s seem to have have.. failed and recycled long long time ago.. 

In Sweden, they must have sold more ///’s than elsewhere in Nordics area as they did produce and translate software manuals in Swedish. I have few software packages that have Swedish manuals included in the package. This makes me wonder, what other products there might have been released?

But yes, patience is a virtue.. and i was finally able to find one! With the strike of luck i was able to locate one from Sweden and it was very kindly, shipped to me.

The case is in fairly good condition but naturally some yellowing is evident. There’s some sticker glue residue that should be easy to clean off as well one sticker that have fell off and reveals much lighter color beneath it. The Apple /// logo oddly seems to loose it’s color so often but it’s easy to repaint with silver paint pen.

..and with the ///’s, one should not expect to have stable unit.. very easily.


Bottom pan metal – “wavy” kind = early A2S1-era of models.

Swedish/Finnish keyboard layout is quite different from the typical US model.




Serial number: A3S1-020817
12v, 128k model originally according to the serial label. It looks like it’s been upgraded to 256k (markings)so the board would have been upgraded to 5v as well.

Regular european power supply: PSU 220VAC | 50-60HZ | 0.5AMP
Should really replace the powersupply with universal powersupply from reactivemicro.


Just basic cleaning to be done before testing.

I opened the case and removed things that actually can be removed. The Apple /// case is one heavy construction that weights about 12 KG when assembled. The only parts that come off easily are : the top case (plastic), keyboard cover (plastic) and the keyboard assembly itself, floppy drive, the main logig board (with the base pan attached) and the power supply (with base pan attached).

The rest of it is the very heavy, one piece, casing that holds all these components. I don’t know what they were thinking when they designed this case – it makes so little sense to create such closed enclousure without basicly any ventilation holes anywhere. Not even for the power supply, expect in back, but if you have four cards installed… no holes anywhere. They might have been thinking passive cooling with the basicly one-piece heavy metallic enclosure but.. it just doesn’t work very well.

Top case:
Removed the top case and cleaned it. Some label-off spray was good choise for removing the sticker glue residue. There were also one sticker that was obiously removed and underneath the plastic was lighter in color. Only Retr0brightning would solve that one if would retr0bright whole enclousure. It doesn’t bother me that much really. It is kind of mark of the past, lived life.

The keyboard seems to be missing few screws underneath the case. Need to find replacements for those. Used some wipes and compressed air to get rid of all that dust and crust from the there. I was lazy at this point to actually wash the keycaps (will do so before putting it back together…). The spacebar seems to have some issues as it seems to lock down from left side easily. Need to investigate that mechanism how it works and give it good cleaning.

Removed the board from the case and investigated it. It looked fine and normal. While it was removed, it’s always good idea to press down all the chips.. (remove static electricity first or use the wrist band) and clean it up with isoprophyl alcohol if available.

The board was originally 12v model but it was upgraded to 5v operation by swapping few IC’s at locations:
C11 (341-0044 > 341-0061)
C13 (341-0042 > 341-0063 (for 256K memory board)

Also the location R58 have been modified as it’s clearly been desoldered.

“Also the R58, which is located just above location C13. On a 12-volt logic board a 27 ohm, 1/4 watt resistor will be present. On a 5-volt logic board R58 will be missing and a solder bridge will connect the small solder pads on the logic board under R58’s mounting position on the board.”

As the main logig board was upgraded to 12v > 5v – the memory board were upgraded to 256k 5v board.

Just removed the protective cover and the analog board, cleaned it with compressed air and some parts with isoprophyl alcohol. The read-in head was really amazingly clean, but cleaned it as well.

Floppy drive serial nnumber.

Power supply ooked really clean. Made in week 51, 1980. The protection around the power cable seems bit worn, but i’ll put an another layer in top of it for time being.

Repainting the logo. Silver paint pen is great for this. Paiting with slightly dry tip of the pen gets it done. Easy fix.


So.. let’s hope it works….



12-volt models have diagnostic’s in ROM so that’s what it goes into when it’s botted without the disk. It passes it OK.

I tested booting the /// with the test disk, “Confidence test”. It booted fine and tested the system without any issues. The RAM test went thru nicely, i didn’t however run it with extensive period of time in this point but long enough to see if there would be any instant issues.

However when rebooting, sometimes the unit feels like it’s not receiving enough current so it seems to fail loading the screen and it get’s all messed up. Also some buzzing sound (getting louder) could be heard. I think all ///’s make strange noises..  Also the keyboard light seems to have been burned off. That means when the unit is started, it goes directly to the diagnostics mode and in order to boot it, one needs to hit reset+control to boot it. The burned lightbulb does not prevent using the computer, it’s just annoyance.

But i went for the safe way and ordered the proven, high quality, “universal power supply” from  It’s very easy to install and you can order new connection cable as well. Should receive it in few weeks, i hope.

I kept testing the unit with known risk of the power supply releasing the “magic white smoke” anytime.. and realized the floppy drive might need some mainantace, so i just did what i’ve done with my other ///’s. Started with obious reasons, swapped the IC “CA3146” and it helped the loading process. Then adjusted the speed and the disk hardware test went thru just fine. Booted also the Apple ][ Emulation mode and “Oidzone” the game by Michael Packard, played fine. It’s still picky when/what type of disks it would read..

Adjusting the drive speed: 

The original logo was worn off so i painted them with silver paint pen. It wasn’t perfect and might need some rework, but it’s pretty ok so far.


After i found the Swedish/Finnish -keyboard layout file ( APPLE-3-WAP-SYS-02B.dsk) i tried to make working disk that the Nordic one would read. No dice. It just wont read them! I does read mostly all other floppies i have made for the ///’s but the new ones, no. Odd. ADTPro works with Uthernet II but for some reason when i try to Receive the file, it crashes ($A01). All hardware tests are ok. After a while (kept it running for longer time) it starts to refuse booting, giving random video errors and characters on screen. This is a sign to put it aside, and wait, for the Universal power supply to arrive. I could.. of cause, borrow one power supply from an another /// of mine. Let’s see if i get around doing so. 

What is left to be done?
-Install the new Universal Power supply.
-Keyboard light bulb replacement
-Test the keyboard layout.



I hope to find more Nordic Apple /// software and manuals etc. I have the devices to preserve the materials either by scanning or reading floppies to disk images (.dsk/.ar2/.woz) with Applesauce.

Any help is very much appreciated with this task. It would mean a lot for me.
Thank you.



Universal Power Supply

FinApple 2019 (c)
Apple /// Forever.